Home | Introduction | Links |  Message Boards | Tribal Circles | Photographers | Questions? | Search
Tribes of the Great Plains: Arapaho | Arikara | Cheyenne | Crow | Dakota | Lakota | Nakota | Osage | Ponca
Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs:
Wasco | Tenino | Paiute

1875 Lakota Delegation Photo

The front row of the 1875 shot are all Oglalas, from left to right:

Iron Horse
American Horse
Bad Wound
wife of Bad Wound
Black Bear

Bad Wound (Southern Oglala, Tasnahecha tiyoshpaye) is the son and namesake of the chief who was prominent in the 1850s and '60s. Black Bear was another headman in the Southern Oglala (or Kiyaksa oshpaye). He belonged to the extended family group (tiyoshpaye) known as Iwayusota (Uses Up with the Mouth). — Kingsley Bray

So far, these are the individuals I have names for:

Standing far left:
Major Bingham, White Swan (aka Little Swan, Minicoujou)

standing back row:
William Felder, Rattling Ribs (Two Kettle), Long Mandan (Two Kettle), Lone Horn (Minicoujou), Sitting Bull (Oglala), Spotted Tail (Brule), unidentified, Mark Wells, Swift Bear (Brule), Little Wound (Oglala), William Garnett, Pawnee Killer?? (Oglala)

sitting middle row:
unidentified, Martin Charger (Sans Arc), Spotted Elk/Big Foot (Minicoujou), unidentified, He Dog (Brule), Ring Thunder?? (Brule) — Dietmar Schulte-Möhring

From memory the guy to the right of Spotted Tail is Face (also known as Scalp Face). He is Oglala, headman in both the Wichiska (White Packstrap) and the Omaha men's societies. The former society was acting as the Red Cloud Agency akichita or police force in 1874-75; the Omaha society maintained order at the agency beef issues.

The fellow seated in the second row, extreme left, is Red Skirt (Miniconjou). He, (Martin) Charger (next right: Sans Arc), and Spotted Elk (next right: Miniconjou) are all from Cheyenne River Agency. Behind them stand, l. to r. White Swan (Miniconjou: Glaglahecha band, fellow in trailer headdress at left); Rattling Ribs (Two Kettle-maybe Sihasapa also?); Tall Mandan (Two Kettle; I have the tiyoshpaye affiliation, but need to check); Lone Horn (Miniconjou: Wakpokiyan band, adoptive father of Spotted Elk/Big Foot). This bloc of chiefs all from Cheyenne River.

To the right of Spotted Elk (or Big Foot) in the second row are three Brule (Spotted Tail Agency) head akichita, all wearing warbonnets: l. to r. Crow Dog, He Dog (not the Oglala), Ring Thunder.

The guy in the trailer headdress (and boots!) standing at the right is Fast Thunder (Oglala), who may have also been Wichiska society leader (debate on the headdress??). Standing behind him, head visible above Fast Thunder's headdress, is Pawnee Killer (Southern Oglala, Tapislecha Tiyoshpaye). At extreme right, standing, is Shoulder (Oglala, band affiliation not known).

Major Bingham and William Fielder are the agent and interpreter, respectively, from Cheyenne River Agency. The man standing to the left of Shoulder is one of the Janises. I'm afraid my memory is misfiring on his first name - maybe check SIRIS; the photo is in the NAA-Smithsonian with full identifications.
Kingsley Bray

I'm sure I remember that the delegation was asked to pose outside the Treasury building. Red Cloud expected to be paid and walked away when the money wasn't forthcoming! A man with a very modern awareness of the value of image! — Kingsley Bray

I've checked on Goodyear's book and he reports this story as well (it appeared on a Washington newspaper which said, among other things, that Red Cloud had asked 25$ for his picture!). Goodyear suggests however that it could have been also that Red Cloud, unsatisfied with the discussions about the Black Hills treaty, refused to be photographed only out of frustration and embitterment. — jinlian

Not sure about the speculation that he was dissatisfied with the Black Hills agreement issue - he undoubtedly was, but so were most of the other delegates. What I would certainly say is NOT the case is that this proves that Red Cloud was a sell-out, etc. etc. I'm beginning to feel strongly that Red Cloud should be restored to a greater respect than he seems to get from most modern commentators, in print and online. — Kingsley Bray

www.American-Tribes.com
©2008-2015 Diane Merkel & Dietmar Schulte-Möhring
All contributors retain the rights to their work.
Reproduction in whole or in part without prior written consent is prohibited.