Home | Introduction | Links |  Message Boards | Tribal Circles | Photographers | Questions? | Search
Tribes of the Great Plains: Arapaho | Arikara | Cheyenne | Crow | Dakota | Lakota | Nakota | Osage | Ponca
Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs:
Wasco | Tenino | Paiute
Hunkpapa Bands at Little Bighorn

Josephine F. Waggoner wrote that there were four Hunkpapa bands in exile with Sitting Bull in Canada. No doubt these were the core of the Hunkpapa who were at the Little Big Horn.

She lists the following bands, but does anyone know who the leaders of the individual bands were?

She listed:
1. Icira -- Sitting Bull and Four Horns
2. Talonapin
3. Kangiska
4. Cankahuran

Coincidentally, when the Hunkpapa were shipped to Standing Rock Agency following their surrender in 1880-81, they were divided into four bands but without listing the band names:

1. Sitting Bull and Four Horns
2. Crow King
3. Gall
4. Rain-in-the-face

— Ephriam Dickson

I just recalled another list of "Uncpapa" bands, from a record of rations issued to band Chiefs at Standing Rock in July, 1885 (RG 75 Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs - Standing Rock Agency, Fort Yates, North Dakota
Roll 5A: Record of Rations Issued 1885
National Archives, Kansas City 1977). You can view it for yourself at:

I counted no less than twenty-seven Hunkpapa Chiefs, although their specific band names were not listed. Perhaps by this time the agent had appointed some Chiefs of his own, as it is documented that McLaughlin promoted his favorites to positions of power within the reservation system. It is also noted in the original list that several of these men had signed the November 1882 treaty, which is also interesting. Here is a list of the Chiefs' names in Lakota and English:

Standing Rock ‘UNCPAPA’ - 14 - 27 July 1885 - (Hunkpapa Band Chiefs)

1) Cetan Wakiyan Chief Thunder Hawk
2) Mato Cuwiyuksa Chief Broken Bear Rib
3) Wanbli Wakantuya Chief High Eagle
4) Mato Ite Chief Bear's Face
5) Akicita Hanska Chief Long Soldier
6) Mato Ocinsica Chief Cross Bear
7) Tejikjice Chief Belly Fat
8) Tatoka Iyanke Chief Running Antelope
9) Mato Wakantuya Chief High Bear

(Crow King’s two daughters belonged to this band after his death in 1884, although they were later adopted by Major James Mclaughlin, the agent at Standing Rock, and his wife, Marie. McLaughlin mentioned in his book “My Friend the Indian” that Crow King had a brother named High Bear who pre-deceased him. Perhaps another brother adopted the name at a later time?)

10) Mato Wayuhi Chief Scattering Bear
11) Wakiyan Watakpe Chief Charging Thunder
12) Pizi Chief Gall
13) Wanbli Rita Chief Grey Eagle
14) Wi Sapa "No. 1" Chief Black Moon
15) Ocinsica Kte Chief Kill With Anger
16) Izuzu Chief Grind Stone
17) Tatanka He Gleska Chief Spotted Horn Bull
18) Oape Ota Chief Struck Plenty
19) Mato Kawinge Chief Circling Bear
20) Tatanka Iyotake Chief Sitting Bull
21) Wakiyan Ohitika Chief Brave Thunder
22) Mazakan Wicuki Chief Takes the Gun
23) He Topa Chief Four Horns
24) Huhu Canrpi Chief Bone Tomahawk
25) Marpiya Iyapato Chief Against the Cloud
26) Tahu Wanica Chief No Neck
27) Mato Hakikta Chief Bear Looking Back

— Glenbow

Actually, there are a number of Hunkpapa bands. Waggoner however wrote (in her unpublished papers at the Museum of the Fur Trade, Chadron, NE; she also compiled the Susan Betteyloun autobiography published by University of Nebraska Press) that there were four bands with Sitting Bull in Canada. I am trying to link the four bands in Canada with the bands as they appear in the agency records after their surrender which are only listed by the name of the headman. I can post the names of some of the Hunkpapa agency bands as well, if interested.

Two important elements to remember when looking at the Hunkpapa bands. First, there was considerable pressure from the Office of Indian Affairs to break the influence of the chiefs. Agent McLaughlin at Standing Rock explained in one of his annual reports that one way to do that was to have as many leaders as possible with very small bands. Eventually everyone would be a headman and the chiefs would therefore have no following. Hence, during the 1880's, you see a sudden rise in the number of Hunkpapa bands such as illustrated on your list.

Second, remember that there are apparently two levels of social organization within a tribe like the Hunkpapa. First, there are the tiyospaye, which are a group of smaller family bands (wicotipi). Tiyospaye were originally defined by their own hunting grounds; wicotipi were more often groups of closely related family members. Once the Hunkpapa and the other Lakota tribes were forced onto reservations, the distinction between tiyospaye and wicotipi appears to have disappeared and they became essentially the same.

When trying to reconstruct the original Lakota political structure, it is important to know whether the name of a "band" is a tiyospaye or a wicotipi. For example, one of the major Oglala tiyospaye were the Kiyuksa or Cut Off band, which consisted of a number of small family groups such as the Kuinyan, built around the family of Little Wound. — Ephriam Dickson

In September 1876, the following Hunkpapa bands were recorded at the Standing Rock Agency:

Thunder Hawk -- 15 lodges (95 people)
Bears Rib -- 4 lodges (30 people)
Running Antelope -- 13 lodges (75 people)
Iron Horn -- 3 lodges (20 people)
Belly Fat -- 6 lodges (40 people)
Long Soldier -- 4 lodges (25 people)
Medicine Man -- 7 lodges (46 people)
White Eye -- 4 lodges (26 people)
Bad Hand -- 7 lodges (40 people)
Black Bird -- 3 lodges (20 people)
Red Horse -- 10 lodges (65 people)
— Ephriam Dickson

I did find this information online at a genealogical site that talks about the Hunkpapa divisions:

I will quote here the information that specifically deals with the Hunkpapa band names:

"Their subdivisions as given by J. O. Dorsey are:
(1) Chankaokhan,
(2) Cheokhba,
(3) Tinazipeshicha,
(4) Talonapin,
(5) Kiglashka,
(6) Chegnakeokisela,
(7) Shikshichela,
(8) Wakan, and
(9) Hunskachantozhuha.

Culbertson (Smithson. Rep. 1850, 141, 1851) mentions the following bands:

Devil's medicine-man band (Wakan),
Half breechclout people (Chegnakeokisela),
Fresh meat necklace people (Talonapin),
Sleepy Kettle band (Cheokhba),
Sore backs (Chankaokhan),
Bad bows (Tinazipeshicha), and
Those that carry.
Fire-Heart's band (Chantaapeta's band) is supposed to be a part of the Hunkpapa."

I recognized the name 'Talonapin' from your original list, which, according to this article, is the same band that I recall having seen in Walter Campbell's notes, and which he referred to as "Fresh meat necklace people". — Glenbow

Those names can also be found in W. J. McGee's article, "The Siouan Indians: A Preliminary Sketch," published in the 15th Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Smithsonian). — Ephriam Dickson

According to Frances Densmore's informants Sitting Bull's band was the Bad Bows (Tinazipe-sica), which is in the lists posted by Glenbow. Vestal's informants consistently identify Sitting Bull with the Icira band, a name not listed in 19th Century tabulations. The Icira may be a small sub-band within the Bad Bows - alternatively, perhaps it's an over-arching title for two or more bands that habitually 'ran together': see Ephriam's discussion of the nested nature of Lakota sub-divisions.

The first list posted by Glenbow above is a snapshot of the Hunkpapa tribal circle ca. 1880 - the order of the bands follows the camp-circle from band no. 1 on the south side of the camp entrance round to band no. 9 on the north side or 'horn'. The translations of the names are as follows. Where we know a chief or leader I've added it:

1. Chankaohan, Sore Backs chief Running Antelope
2. Che-ohkba, Sleepy Penis chiefs Little Bear (pre-1866), Tall Soldier, Bear Face
3. Tinazipe-sica, Bad Bow chief Sitting Bull
4. Talonapin, Fresh Meat Necklace chief Charging Thunder (post-1880, a Densmore informant)
5. Kiglashka, Tie Their Own
6. Chegnaka-okisela, Half Breechcloth
7. Siksicela, Bad Ones
8. Wakan, Holy
9. Hunska-cantojuha, Legging Tobacco Pouches.

This still leaves us in the dark about the band affiliations of key leaders such as Gall, Crow King. — Kingsley Bray

I have managed to find a good deal of the Campbell papers that I received from the University of Oklahoma Library, although I still have not pinpointed the exact document I was hoping to find. Campbell's notes from the field appear to have been hastily written in point form, and some interpretation is required by the reader. For example, he often uses initals to designate an individual, so it is important that his information is not misinterpreted, and there is often a question and answer format from the transcriptions of his interviews with Lakota Elders. So far, I've managed to find one interesting reference to a band of Hunkpapa that went to Canada after the Custer Battle. It is from Notebook 12, Box No. 105, on the cover of which is hand writtten "Old Bull / White Bull". I have injected my own interpretations in brackets:


"When OB [Old Bull] 1 yr old - 1851: Following chiefs made:
1) 4 Horns
2) Red - [Horn]
3) Loud Hawk
4) Running Antelope

Before that just lodge - no chiefs -

Lots peo[ple] already in Can[ada] when SB [Sitting Bull] starts -

SB go to Canada? yr spring after Custer - 77
OB [Old Bull] with Sitting Bull - already there


Few of White Crows [Kangi Ska?] bands there -
White Crow = name of whole band -
leader = Shoots the Enemy Hunk[papa]"

— Glenbow

The following information is from Walter Campbell's research notes (Box 105, notebook 35, entitled "Two Bulls on Custer Battle & Sitting Bull"). Please note that these are once again jotted notes, apparently handwritten by Campbell himself:

p8 (verso):

"On Little Mo [Missouri] in camp

Gall, Circling Bear & father there

4 Horns same band but not sure of kin to S.B. [Sitting Bull]

Old Black Moon adopted father of [Sitting Bull]

Red Hail - not sure a chief

chiefs of [words "S.B. band' scratched out]
1) 4 Horns
2) Red - [Horn(s?)]
3) Running Antelope
4) Charge the Tiger
all counselors of Humkpapa -
up to 1850 [ this is barely legible]


bands - of above
A) 4+1. Band that separated & went
[following brackets are Campbells:]
[icira (ichicra gutteral 'r')]
together again

3+2. named after Sore Back of horses

1. Gall
2. Long Dog
3. Running Horse
4. SB [Sitting Bull]

4. to A
1. " Breechclout
2. " Meat Necklace
3. " Had discord & thrown aside band -

Both groups Hunkpapa -
Red Horn head chief ?? [Frank] Zahn doubted"

— Glenbow

The Josephine Waggoner Papers (courtesy Kingsley) noted that there were four Hunkpapa bands in exile in Canada:
1. Icira -- Sitting Bull, Four Horns, Red Horn and Black Moon.
2. Talonapin -- Charging Thunder
3. Cangiska (Kangiska) -- Gall
4. Cankahuran -- Cross Bear and Running Antelope [since both of these men led agency bands, was there a part of the Sorebacks who were in Canada with Sitting Bull?]

Coincidentally, when the Hunkpapa were sent to Standing Rock Agency shortly after their surrender, they were divided into four major groups:
1. Sitting Bull and Four Horns
2. Crow King
3. Gall
4. Rain in the Face
Is it too much to hope that they in fact represent the four bands that Waggoner wrote of? Lets take each one individually.

Band 1. Waggoner had already identified Sitting Bull and Four Horn's band as the Icira.

Band 2. Crow King was counted at Standing Rock Agency in September 1881 with 285 people. By December of that year, the agency officials were recording these people in two bands: Crow King's (163 people) and Charging Thunder (136 people). By 1883, Crow King's band was shown divided again, between Crow King (113 people) and Scattering Bear (48 people), with Charging Thunder numbering 137 people. Following Crow King's death in 1884, High Bear was listed as the head of this band in agency records. Waggoner listed Charging Thunder as Talo-napin; can we assume that in fact all three groups belonged to this band (or at least were closely related)?

Band 3. Gall. Waggoner listed Gall's band as the Kangiska.

Band 4. By the process of elimination, this leaves making a connection between Rain in the Face and the Soreback band. I cannot make that connection yet, but suspect it is there. I am just beginning to track his band through the Standing Rock records. It is of interest to note that Rain in the Face is shown in Bear's Face band (one of the agency bands) in the 1885 census. — Ephriam Dickson

I've found something else in the Campbell notes regarding the Hunkpapa band names. On page 15 of Folder #8, Box 105 is written the following:

"Names of bands in Hunkpapa tribe when Sitting Bull was chief [after 1867?] -

1) Sitting Bull's Band called Bad Bulls [the word "Bows" written above] Band. Sometimes called Icira because Sitting Bull was chief of Icira & they joined Bad Bull's Band - Sitting Bull became chief
2) Red Horn's Band called Sore Back
3) Long Horn's Band called Holy
4) Gall's Band called Meat Necklace"

This latest bit of information only manages to confuse things more, as Gall is here associated with the Talonapin, after having already been designated as a member or Chief of the Kangi Ska and possibly Half Breechclout bands. I am not sure who Campbell's informant was for this particular information, although I can probably find out. It would seem that the Lakota oral tradition was not infallible, and facts could possibly have become blurred over the years. As for Rain-in-the-Face, was he ever positively identified as a Chief? In the 1885 annuity record from Standing Rock, he is listed as a member of the band led by Chief Bear's Face (Bear's Head?) whom I believe I read somewhere was his brother. — Glenbow

Of the four Hunkpapa bands enrolled at Standing Rock, summer 1881 (Sitting Bull & Four Horns; Crow King; Gall; Rain in the Face) SB & FH equate with Waggoner's Icira. I feel reasonably confident that we can identify Crow King's band with the Talonapin, Fresh Meat Necklace, and that his sub-band and those of Charging Thunder and Scattering Bear together comprise that band. Gall is identified with Waggoner's Kangi-ska, White Crow band - a name also mentioned in the Campbell data , but not mentioned in the 19th Century Hunkpapa band lists. It must tie in with one or more of the bands in the contemporary tribal circle listed in my last post.

Rain in the Face is the last band leader to tie up. Interestingly, his band surrendered at Fort Keogh on the Yellowstone rather than at the posts along the upper Missouri (Buford, Wolf Point etc.) where the other Hunkpapa surrendered. It's tempting to tie him up with Waggoner's Sore Backs, but it doesn't seem quite so neat. As Ephriam notes, in the 1885 SR census he is listed in Bear's Face's band. In the Waggoner papers at the Museum of the Fur Trade, Chadron, NE, there is a biographical profile of Bear Face, where he is named as the head chief of the "Ceyorwa" band of Hunkpapa. This name equates with the Che-okhba or Sleepy P-nis band (I'm trying to circumvent the site's inbuilt bowdlerising facility, which rendered this name as Sleepy Thingy in my previous post!). Bear Face was a brother of Rain in the Face - see James McLaughlin, 'My Friend the Indian' p. 226 f, so I'm confident that Rain's natal band was the Che-okhba.

Having said that note that Sore Backs and Che-okhba are neighbours as bands 1 and 2 in the camp-circle, which usually means that they are related or sister bands.

Moving back in time, the Campbell infor' has huge implications for earlier Hunkpapa history. In the spirit of a brainstorming session, I read the data as follows: originally, there was a basic binary division of the Hunkpapa tribe into two primary bands (again, review Ephriam's analysis of the nesting of sub-divisions). One was the Sore Backs, the other was the Icira. The informant goes on to give Campbell a rather detailed breakdown of the composition of the Icira sub-bands, including the Breechclout, Meat Necklace, and Had discord and thrown aside band. These correspond to the camp-circle bands I listed as Half Breechcloth, Fresh Meat Necklace, and Siksicela. Since Densmore identifies Sitting Bull with the Bad Bows band, that too must be a part of the larger Icira grouping. Note how these bands comprise a bloc within the camp-circle. Unfortunately the informant doesn't go into detail in breaking down the Sore Back division, but I suggest it included at least the Che-okhba band next to it in the tribal circle. Interestingly Lewis & Clark and Tabeau in 1804 also break down the Hunkpapa into two major bands - I suspect that their Saone-Hontpapa corresponds to the Sore Backs division, their Tackchandeseechar band to the Icira. — Kingsley Bray

I've worked through my Waggoner notes and thought I'd post the band identifications of certain Hunkpapa individuals. All statements from Waggoner:

Bear Face, 1830-1915: head chief of Ceyorwa band. He talked with Miles October 1876 under flag of truce with Crow Feather and Charging Thunder.

Bone Club, 1842-1928: with Sitting Bull in Canada, belonged to Wakpokinyan band [Miniconjou, band of Lone Horn and Touch the Clouds - KMB], which settled at Standing Rock 15 miles from mouth of Grand River. This band raised good horses and cattle, farmed a little in good years.

Spotted Horn Bull: belonged to Talonapin, Fresh Meat Necklace band

Gall: belonged to Kangiska, White Crow band.

— Kingsley Bray

SPOTTED HORN BULL Tatanka He Gleska (c1836-1890). Wife: Pretty White Buffalo (Ptesan Waste win). Counted in September 1881 in Crow King's Band; from December 1881 through June 1883, listed in Bear Hat's Band; leader of his own band by April 1884 up to his death during the arrest of Sitting Bull.

The census records support Waggoner's identification of Spotted Horn Bull as part of the Talonap'in Band. When his own band was formed by the spring of 1884, at least one third of the members (and probably more) were drawn from Charging Thunder's band, also listed as Talonap'in. These two bands are clearly linked by the various families. — Ephriam Dickson

No Neck (Tahu Wanica) was among the last to come in, living in Canada until 1884. He surrendered at Standing Rock some time between April and September 1884. In the Standing Rock Agency records, he is generally listed with 15 or 16 lodges in his band; one time with as many as 21 families. Still looking at these families, but looks like they include both Hunkpapa and Minnecoujou.

No Neck appears to have died during early to mid 1885 (his wife is listed as a widow in the 1885 census). A relative, Iron Star, is listed in the band up to 1885; then he is shown as the headman of Black Moon's old band. Several of the families in No Neck's band scatter to other Hunkpapa bands, but nearly half of them just disappear from the Standing Rock Agency records all together (moved to Cheyenne River Agency?) — Ephriam Dickson

According to Utley and several other sources some of the most prominent Hunkpapa headman in the Canada exile were Long Dog, Little Knife, The Crow and Iron Dog.
Little Knife is said to be one of the first of the Teton Sioux leaders to settle across the border. — Dietmar Schulte-Möhring

Here is a source of some more names of Teton leaders at a conference in Canada (some of them might had been at the LBH?):

FORT WALSH, October 17, 1877.
The commission assembled at 3 o'clock p. m. in Major Walsh's quarters. Present: General Terry, General Lawrence, Capt. H. C. Corbin, and Mr. Jay Stone, a stenographer.
Lieutenant-Colonel McLeod, Major Walsh, and other officers of the mounted police were also present.
The Indian chiefs were then brought is and their names announced, as follows: Bear's Head, head chief of the Uncapapas ; Sitting Bull, The Spotted Eagle, The Flying Bird, The Whirlwind Bear, The Medicine-turns-around, The Iron, Dog, The-man-that-scatters-the-Bear Little Knife, The Crow, and Yellow Dog.


— Dietmar Schulte-Möhring

Both Long Dog (Sunka Hanska; born circa. 1821) and Iron Dog (Sunka Maza; born c1813-14) are listed in Crow King's band in the Sitting Bull Surrender Census in 1881.

They apparently surrendered with Crow King, arriving at Poplar Creek Jan. 20, 1881 and at Fort Buford on Feb. 5, 1881; transferred to Fort Yates, arriving May 29; turned over to Standing Rock Agency on July 21, 1881.

Long Dog is listed in records in Crow King's band through Dec. 1881, but I have not found a record for him after that. Iron Dog is listed in the records in Crow King's band, then later in High Bear's Band (Crow King's successor) through 1887. Presumably he died in late 1887 or early 1888.

Crow is listed in the Sitting Bull Surrender Ledger in Gall's Band. There is no Hunkpapa named Little Knife listed, through there is a Little Knife (born c1816) listed in Hump's band of Minneconjou in 1881. — Ephriam Dickson

Crow did not appear in the July 1885 Annuity List for the Standing Rock Agency. Actually, his family is there, but Crow himself appears to have died in either late 1884 or early 1885. His 18 year old son, Kill with Anger, is listed as chief and most of Crow's band are shown following him: families such as Pushing Around Holy, Lump on Leg, Spotted Weasel, etc.

As you already known from Utley (1993), Crow surrendered with Gall. They arrived at Poplar Agency in late November 1880; were surrounded by Major Ilges in early Jan. 1881 and then forced to walk to Fort Buford where they arrived Jan. 10, 1881. They were then loaded on steamers on May 26 and arrived at Fort Yates on May 29; then turned over to agency officials at Standing Rock Agency on July 21, 1881.

In the Sitting Bull Surrender Census, Sept. 1881, Crow is listed in Gall's band. He is 46 years of age (born circa 1835), with his wife and three sons. Crow is listed in Gall's band in the annuity and issue records for 1881, 1882 and early 1883. By November 1883, however, Crow's band is listed seperate from Gall, with 22 families/78 people. Crow's band is listed through the 1884 records.

I have not gone through the early 1885 issue records yet. However, by June-July 1885, when both the agency census and the annuity list were created, Crow was gone. His wife and three sons are still shown, with the eldest son (known earlier as Kola but now known as Kill with Anger) as chief.

By the time of the 1886 census, Crow's band has scattered, the families joining various other Hunkpapa bands at the agency. This is very typical. With the death of a prominent leader, a band often disintegrated and its members scattered to join other relatives. We can document this process in the Standing Rock Agency records for several bands, including Crow's, Black Moon's, Four Horns and Long Soldier's. — Ephriam Dickson

I do know that SB was NOT a wakan, though after he married the Grey Eagle sisters (1871) his status within the Wakans was accepted more by the likes of the more important Wakan members -- Grey Eagle II (Grey Eagle I was killed attacking the Minnesota cavalry when they ventured into the country just east of the missouri near Bismarck, ND), Long Dog, Iron Dog, Rain (all brothers), Bear Soldier, etc.

I can't remember right off, but there were only 3 or 4 distinct "bands." The descendents of these bands can be found at Rock Creek (Bullhead, Wakans), Running Antelope's camp (Little Eagle), and a different one at Wakpala, and another one near Thunder Hawk. — Tokaouspa

There were six full-brothers, sons of the Hunkpapa Bear Face I (Mato Ite). The latter was a signatory as a warrior to the 1825 Hunkpapa treaty with the Atkinson-O'Fallon Commission. He must have been born about 1800. His sons were

Red Thunder - born about 1827, this is LaDonna's ancestor
Bear Face II - born about 1830
Iron Horn - born about 1830
Rain in the Face - born about 1836
Little Bear - born ?
Shave Head - born ?

The family was a leading tiwahe within the Che-okhba or Droopy Penis band. The band occupied the place in the Hunkpapa camp-circle next to the Sore-Backs band, which suggests they may have been sister bands, one budded off the other. This is borne out by the fact that Running Antelope (born ca. 1820) and Cross Bear (born ca. 1846), who were heads of the leading Sore-Backs families, are both identified as 'brothers' of Bear Face II, Iron Horn, etc. In the case of Running Antelope, I suspect that his father and Bear Face I were brothers - hence the Lakota relationship as 'brothers'.

Iron Horn came to Ft Sully October 1865 to attend treaty talks as a Hunkpapa soldier. According to his own statement he was made a chief this same year - 1865. (Robert P. Higheagle to Stanley Vestal stated that IH was "not a chief at all", but conceded that he was the herald, eyanpaha, or camp crier of the Hunkpapas.) He signed the 1868 treaty at Ft Rice and was among the first Hunkpapas to settle at Grand River Agency - hence his role in the 1872 delegation and the Gardner portrait above. His brothers Bear Face and Red Thunder were also agency leaders by 1876, but IH stated in 1879 that his other 'brothers', naming Rain in the Face, Little Bear, and Cross Bear, were in Canada with Sitting Bull's people.

Check back to Tokayuspe's posting in the Hunkpapa bands thread [above], because he intimates that Long Dog and Iron Dog, Hunkpapa headmen in Canada with Sitting Bull, were also 'brothers' to "Rain", i.e Rain in the Face. I'm not sure how this relationship worked, but one hunch I'm working on is that these men's mothers may have been 'sisters' and belonged to the Wakan band of Hunkpapa. I would think that Iron Dog's and Long Dog's fathers belonged to the Talonapin, Raw Meat Necklace band. — Kingsley Bray


©2008-2015 Diane Merkel & Dietmar Schulte-Möhring
All contributors retain the rights to their work.
Reproduction in whole or in part without prior written consent is prohibited.