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John C. H. Grabill Photograph, 1891

This photo is in several books, frequently with some of the men obviously incorrectly identified - I mean, I recognise Crow Dog and Two Strike, for example, but I don't see Young Man Afraid, and having read Jensen's book I'm well aware of the need photographers felt (on occasion) to mis-identify their subject for commercial purposes. — Grahame Wood

The only Sioux individuals I can identify precisely in your photos of 1891 are Two Strikes, Crow Dog, Rocky Bear and High Hawk.

I am not sure about the other names listed on the photo (Two Lance, Thunder Hawk, Good Voice, Short Bull, Kicking Bear), but there definitely is no Young-Man-Afraid or American Horse pictured. — Dietmar Schulte-Möhring

I've always thought American Horse was the man crouching next to the seated white man (different white man in each photo), but I can't see the others you mentioned and it is very easy to spot Kicking Bear and Short Bull in that photo of the captive Ghost Dancers when they are considerably futher away from the camera. — Grahame Wood

The photo in Jensen´s book, which is only slightly different than the two pics you posted, shows this inscription:

Indian Chiefs and U.S. Officials:
1. Two Strike
2. Crow Dog
3. Short Bull
4. High Hawk
5. Two Lance
6. Kicking Bear
7. Good Voice
8. Thunder Hawk
9. Rocky Bear
10. Young Man Afraid of his Horses
11. American Horse
12. W.F. Cody, Buffalo Bill
13. Maj. J.M. Burke
14. J.C. Craiger
15. J. McDonald
16. J.G. Worth
Taken at Pine Ridge Jan. 16. ´91. Photo and copyright by Grabill 1891, Deadwood S.D.

Rocky Bear, Oglala, is standing in the back row, first indian from left (with hat)
Two Strike, Brule, is standing fourth indian from left
W.F. Cody is standing next to Two Strike
Crow Dog, Brule, is standing right to Cody
High Hawk, Brule, is standing next/right to Crow Dog
Maj. Burke is standing/sitting far right

Although I have photos of Short Bull, Kicking Bear, Good Voice, Young Man Afraid, American Horse as reference, I can´t find them in the photos. Maybe Two Lance or Thunder Hawk (both Brule?) are? — Dietmar Schulte-Möhring

The two photos above are from the Grabill collection, but this time the inscription is more accurate. All indian names seem to be correct: "Indian chiefs who counciled with Gen. Miles and settled the indian war. Photo and copyright by Grabill ´91"

The last of the three photos shows, back row standing from left to right: Standing Bull, Has The Big, Liver Bear, Bull Dog, Lance. Front row sitting: Bear-Who-Looks-Back-Running, White Tail, Little Thunder, High Hawk, Eagle Pipe.

I think they are all Brule Sioux or at least from Rosebud/Spotted Tail agency. The same individuals are in the second photo, High Hawk is standing in the middle. I am wondering if this could be the Bull Dog who lead the Brule Sioux in Canada? — Dietmar Schulte-Möhring

In this case it is helpful to take a look at the John A. Anderson photographs (in Henry W. Hamilton´s "The Sioux of the Rosebud", University of Oklahoma Press).

There you can find portraits and one group photograph of Lance, Little Thunder, High Hawk, Eagle Pipe and Bear-Who-Looks-Back-Running (or Bear Looks Behind). I also have other photos of Liver Bear (or Living Bear, wasn´t he the father of Plenty Horses, who killed Lt. Casey?) and White Tail.

So these names should be right in the Grabill photo, possibly the other names are also, but of these I have no proof.
— Dietmar Schulte-Möhring

Just a few disjointed notes on individuals in the 1891Ghost Dance period photos:

Bear Looks Behind (=Bear Looks Back Running?) was Miniconjou, brother-in-law to Swift Bear, chief of Brule Corn-Owners band, lived at Rosebud.

White Tail - Wazhazha band chief, first noted in documentary record 1864.

Owns the Big White Horse - cousin to the Red Leaf family, Wazhazha band.

Liver Bear, i.e. Living Bear - said to be cousin of Two Strike, and father to Plenty Horses (killer of Lt. Casey). He lived in the Two Strike camp southwest of Rosebud Agency. He is visibly the same man as the Living Bear photographed with Red Dog and other Oglalas (Washington, 1870?), an NAA photo that I'm sure Ephriam posted a while ago. He is listed in Col. Smith's report on the 1870 Ogla delegation (Olson mistranscribed the name as "Swing Bear").

Bull Dog should indeed be the Wazhazha leader who was in Canada 1878-80. — Kingsley Bray

Here's another picture of three leaders from that time:

I have been wondering about the High Hawk in your last photo a lot. He is definetly not the same man as in the Grabill photos. On the cover of Leonard Crow Dog´s book ("Crow Dog - four generations of Sioux medicine men") he is instead named Iron Shell, but I don´t think he looks like the Iron Shell in the Gardner photos of 1872. — Dietmar Schulte-Möhring


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